Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Space and Symbolism
By Shijo Jose (A/2371/2011)
History of Structure
II Yr Sem IV
Great Mosque of Damascus, also called Umayyad Mosque, � the earliest surviving natural stone mosque, built between advertising 705 and 715 by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walīd I. The mosque stands on the website of a 1st-century Hellenic brow to Jupiter and of a later house of worship ‘Basilica of Saint Ruben the Baptist'. Some Syrio-Roman fragments remain in the framework, as does a shrine apparently enclosing a relic honoured by Muslims as well as Christian believers - the top of St John the Baptist. The mosque uses up a huge court 515 simply by 330 toes (157 by 100 m) and contains a large open courtyard surrounded by a great arcade of arches supported by slender columns. The liwan, or corridor of praise, running the size of the southern side of the mosque, is definitely divided into three long aisles by rows of columns and arches. A transept using a central octagonal dome, at first wooden, reduces across the aisles at their midpoint. The marble barriere that cover the windows inside the south wall are the initial example of geometric interlace in Islāmic structures. The walls from the mosque had been once protected with more than an acre of mosaics describing a fanciful scenery thought to be the Quʾrānic paradise, but just fragments survive. The mosque was damaged by Timur in 1401, rebuilt by Arabs, and damaged by simply fire in 1893. Although it could not be restored to its first splendour, the mosque is still an impressive executive monument.
Damascus was the capital of the Aramaean state Aram-Damascus during the Flat iron age. They will followed the cult of Hadad-Ramman, the god of thunderstorms and rain, and erected a temple focused on him in the site of the present-day Mosque. The site probably consisted of a walled courtyard, a small chamber for praise, and a tower-like framework typically as a symbol of the " high place" of tornado gods, in such a case Hadad.
In 64AD, the Romans conquered Damascus and assimilated Hadad with the own the almighty of oklahoma city – Jupiter. With the exception of the much increased scale from the building, most of its first Semitic style was stored; the walled courtyard was largely left intact. In the heart of the courtyard stood the cella, an image of the the almighty which enthusiasts would exclusive chance. There was 1 tower each and every of courtyard's four corners. The podiums were utilized for rituals based on ancient Semitic religious practices where surrender were made on high places. It was separated from the city by two models of wall surfaces. The initial, wider wall spanned an extensive area that included a market and the second wall ornamented the actual haven of Jupiter. It was the largest temple in Roman Syria. Towards the end of the 4th-century, in 391, the Brow of Jupiter was converted into the Cathedral of St John by the Christian chief of the Subtil Empire. Afterwards in the 6th-century the star came about that Saint John's head was buried there.
However , a century after, the Umayyad dynasty which usually chose Damascus to be the management capital with the Muslim community and the 6th Umayyad caliph, al-Walid I actually, commissioned the construction of a large congregational mosque which usually completely improved the layout from the building and most of the cathedral was demolished, including a prayer hall that had been built for Muslims in the Southern Eastern portion of the building. Throughout the construction of the mosque, employees found a cave-chapel which will had a box containing the top of St . John the Baptist, or Yaḥyā ibn Zakarīyā in Islam and al-Walid I ordered your head buried within specific pillar in the mosque that was later inlaid with marble.
In 750, the Abbasid empire came to power and relocated the capital with the Caliphate to Baghdad and built the Dome with the Clock in the eastern part of the mosque in 780. Nine years later, they initiated the development of the Dome of the...