Lecture Notes upon Introductory Stats, I
(P. P. Leung)
Lecture notes depend on the following textbook:
N. A. Weiss (2012), Introductory Statistics, 9th release, Pearson.
Chapter 1 The size of Statistics зµ±иЁ€жњ¬иіЄ
В§1. one particular Two kinds of Statistics
В§1. 4 Other Sampling Models (е…¶д»–жЉЅжЁЈж–№жі•)
Chapter 1 The Nature of Statistics зµ±иЁ€жњ¬иіЄ
What is Stats? дЅ•и¬‚зµ±иЁ€?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia:
Stats is a numerical science associated with the collection, examination, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. It is applicable to a wide array of academic disciplines, from the natural and social sciences to the humanities. Statistics is also used for making educated decisions in government and business. Statistical methods can be used to summarize or perhaps describe an accumulation of data; this really is called descriptive statistics. Additionally , patterns in the data could possibly be modeled in a manner that accounts for randomness and doubt in the observations, and then accustomed to draw inferences about the process or inhabitants being studied; this is called inferential figures. Both descriptive and inferential statistics comprise applied statistics. There is also a willpower called numerical statistics, which can be concerned with the theoretical foundation the subject.
From Our textbook:
в†ђ Specifics or info of a statistical kind, set up (зµ„еђ€), grouped (е€†йЎћ) and tabulated (иЎЁе€—) so as to present significant information regarding a given subject matter в†ђ Technology of putting together, classifying, and tabulating such facts or data в†ђ Collecting and analyzing data for the purpose in making generalizations and decisions
Statistic (in wider and simpler sense):
1 . Permit data speak. и®“ж•ёж“љиЄЄи©±гЂ‚
2 . Quantify the uncertainties. ж•ёй‡ЏеЊ–дёЌжє–зўєзЁ‹еє¦гЂ‚
3. Producing decision lacking the necessary information. ењЁжўќд»¶дёЌи¶ідё‹еЃље†іе®љгЂ‚
В§1. 1 Two varieties of Statistics
Detailed Statistics (жЏЏиї°зµ±иЁ€) вЂ“ involves methods for arranging (ж•ґзђ†) and summarizing (ж‘и¦Ѓ) information, electronic. g. the NBA/CBA period every year.
Inferential Statistics (жЋЁж–·зµ±иЁ€) вЂ“ involves methods for drawing and testing the stability (еЏЇйќ жЂ§) of conclusions with regards to a population depending on information from a sample with the population, electronic. g. the 1948 usa president election.
Population (зёЅй«”) вЂ“ the collection of most individuals or items under consideration in a statistical study.
Sample (жЁЈжњ¬) вЂ“ a subsection, subdivision, subgroup, subcategory, subclass (part) with the population from where information can be collected.
Statistics in this training course вЂ“ both descriptive stats or inferential statistics (they are used statistics. )
В§1. a couple of Simple Random Sampling (з°Ўе–®йљЁж©џжЉЅжЁЈ)
Census (е…Ёй«”ж™®жџҐ) вЂ“ acquire information on the entire population interesting. Sampling (жЉЅжЁЈ) вЂ“ get information on only part of the population of interest. Experimentation (зµ±иЁ€еЇ¦й©—) вЂ“ acquire info by making up an research.
Why testing is needed?
Review of the entire population is often labouring, time consuming, expensive, often impractical and sometimes impossible.
Simple Random Testing (з°Ўе–®йљЁж©џжЉЅжЁЈ) вЂ“ A sampling procedure for which usually each possible sample of any given dimensions are equally likely to be the one received. (жЇЏеЂ‹жЉЅжЁЈе–®дЅЌиў«жЉЅе€°зљ„еЏЇиѓЅжЂ§йѓЅз›ёеђЊзљ„ж–№жі•)
Straightforward Random Test (з°Ўе–®йљЁж©џжЁЈжњ¬) вЂ“ A sample acquired by straightforward random testing.
Why unique sample is very important?
The sample being considered has to be a representative sample (д»ЈиЎЁжЂ§жЁЈжњ¬), i actually. e. it will reflect while closely as it can be the relevant features (з›ёй—њз‰№иіЄ) from the population. Arbitrary sample is actually a representative test.
Simple random sampling with replacement (еЏЇж”ѕе›ћз°Ўе–®йљЁж©џжЉЅжЁЈ) Simple unique sampling with out replacement (дёЌеЏЇж”ѕе›ћз°Ўе–®йљЁж©џжЉЅжЁЈ) (In this program, unless we all specify normally, assume that straightforward random sample is done with replacement).
Case вЂ“ Straightforward Random Sampling P. 14 Ex1. six
Sampling Oklahoma State Representatives As through The World Almanac, the top five state representatives of Oklahoma are as shown in Table 1 ) 2 . Consider these five...